Research Articles

Pathways to Change in the Psychotherapy of Depression: Relating Process to Session Change and Outcome

Watson, J. C., & Greenberg, L. S. (1996). Pathways to change in the psychotherapy of depression: Relating process to session change and outcome. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, and Training, 33(2), 262-274. doi:10.1037/0033-3204.33.2.262

 

Article Description: This study identified a pathway from in session process, and problem resolution, to post session change and final outcome. Two brief treatments for depression, one using client-centered (CC) and the other process-experiential (PE) interventions were compared on client process and outcome. The PE group showed significantly higher levels of experiencing, vocal quality and expressive stance, and greater problem resolution than the CC group in two of three PE interventions that were studied. Clients' Degree of Problem Resolution (DRS) correlated significantly with depth of experiencing, and sustained resolution over treatment resulted in better outcome.

Additional Info

  • Author Watson Greenberg
  • Date 1996
  • Keywords Depression, Psychotherapy Outcomes
  • Journal Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, and Training

Psychotherapy: The Humanistic (and Effective) Treatment

Wampold, B. E. (2007). Psychotherapy: The humanistic (and effective) treatment. American Psychologist, 62(8), 857-873. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.62.8.857

 

Article Description: Common factors research.  Psychotherapy is compared with medicine and cultural healing practices to argue that critical aspects of psychotherapy involve human processes that are used in religious, spiritual, and cultural healing practices. A model of psychotherapy is presented that stipulates various aspects that involve uniquely human characteristics. Central to this model is patient acquisition of an adaptive explanation of his or her difficulties.

Additional Info

  • Author Wampold
  • Date 2007
  • Keywords Evidence-Based Practice, Psychotherapy Outcomes, Common Factors
  • Journal American Psychologist

An Examination of the Bases of Evidence-Based Interventions

Wampold, B. E. (2002). An examination of the bases of evidence-based interventions. School Psychology Quarterly, 17(4), 500-507. doi:10.1521/scpq.17.4.500.20870

 

Article Description: School psychology has proposed a system to aid in the identification of evidence-based interventions.  In this commentary, issues related to the politics of exclusion, design and theory, methods, and multicultarism are discussed.

Additional Info

  • Author Wampold
  • Date 2002
  • Keywords Evidence-Based Practice, Psychotherapy Outcomes
  • Journal School Psychology Quarterly

Warding off the Evil Eye: When the Fear of Being Envied Increases Prosocial Behavior

Van de Ven, N., Zeelenberg, M., & Pieters, R. (2010). Warding Off the Evil Eye: When the Fear of Being Envied Increases Prosocial Behavior. Psychological Science, 21(11), 1671-1677.

 

Article Description: In 3 experiments, with samples consisting of Dutch participants who were placed in either experimental or control groups, authors explore the idea that the “better off” act more prosocially as an appeasement strategy.

Additional Info

Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioural, Person-Centered, and Psychodynamic Therapies as Practiced in UK National Health Service Settings

Stiles, W. B., Barkham, M., Twigg, E., Mellor-Clark, J., & Cooper, M. (2006). Effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural, person-centred and psychodynamic therapies as practised in UK national health service settings. Psychological Medicine, 36(4), 555-66.

 

Article Description: Compared CBT, PCT, and Psychodynamic treatment.  All three treatment groups showed marked improvement.  There was a large overlap in score distribution between treatment types.  Outcome is consistent with previous literature comparing treatment approaches.

Additional Info

Yes We Can! Prejudice Reduction Through Seeing (Inequality) and Believing (in Social Change)

Stewart, T. L., Latu, I. M., Branscombe, N. R., Denney, H. T. (2010) Yes We Can! Prejudice Reduction Through Seeing (Inequality) and Believing (in Social Change). Psychological Science, 21(11), 1557-1562.

 

Article Description: Authors investigate by experimentally varying feedback while investigating perception of efficacy to reduce racial inequality (in the context of increased awareness of illegitimate in-group advantages) on White Americans’ intergroup attitudes and antidiscrimination behavior.

Additional Info

Cognitive-Behavioral and Humanistic Group Treatment for Children with Learning Disabilities: A Comparison of Outcomes and Process

Shechtman, Z., & Pastor, R. (2005). Cognitive-behavioral and humanistic group treatment for children with learning disabilities: A comparison of outcomes and process. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52(3), 322-336. doi:10.1037/0022-0167.52.3.322

 

Article Description: The authors of this study examined the outcomes and processes of 2 types of group treatment— cognitive– behavioral treatment groups (CBTG) and humanistic group therapy.  Results indicated that the addition of either type of group treatment to individual academic assistance was more effective than the latter alone on most measures. In fact, on the majority of measures, group treatment without academic assistance was more effective than just individual assistance. Finally, HGT was more effective than CBTG on most measures.

Additional Info

  • Author Schechtman Pastor
  • Date 2005
  • Keywords Cognitive-Behavioral, Group Psychotherapy, Learning Disbility, Psychotherapy Outcomes
  • Journal Psychological Science

Relational Mobility Explains Between- and Within-Culture Differences in Self-Disclosure to Close Friends

Schug, J., Yuki, M., & Maddux, W. (2010) Relational mobility Explains Between- and Within-culture Differences in Self-Disclosure to Close Friends. Psychological Science, 21(10), 1471-1478.

 

Article Description: Authors explore predictors and mediators in social relationships that promote self-disclosure in Japan

Additional Info

  • Author Schug Yuki Maddux
  • Date 2010
  • Keywords Diversity, Psychotherapy
  • Journal Psychological Science

The Concept of the Fully Functioning Person

Rogers, C. R. (1963). The concept of the fully functioning person. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice, 1(1), 17-26. doi:10.1037/h0088567

 

Article Description: From a humanistic perspective, answers the questions of: If we were as successful as therapists as we could wish to be, what sort of persons would have developed in our therapy? What is the hypothetical end-point, the ultimate, of the therapeutic process?

Additional Info

  • Author Rogers
  • Date 1963
  • Keywords Person Centered, Psychotherapy, Psychotherapy Outcome
  • Journal Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, and Practice

The Necessary and Sufficient Conditions of Therapeutic Personality Change

Rogers, C. R. (1957). The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 21(2), 95-103. doi:10.1037/h0045357

 

Article Description: Seminal article in which Rogers describes his conditions of change that have become the tenets of person centered therapy/theory.

Additional Info

  • Author Rogers
  • Date 1957
  • Keywords Person Centered, Psychotherapy
  • Journal Journal of Consulting Psychology

Clientcentered Theory

Rogers, C. R. (1956). Clientcentered theory. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 3(2), 115-120. doi:10.1037/h0046548

 

Article Description: Case study of an antisocial patient from a client-centered approach.  In the application of client-centered therapy, Rogers discusses how his approach facilitates growth.

Additional Info

  • Author Rogers
  • Date 1956
  • Keywords Person Centered
  • Journal Journal of Counseling Psychology

Persons or Science? A Philosophical Question

Rogers, C. R. (1955). Persons or science? A philosophical question. American Psychologist, 10(7), 267-278. doi:10.1037/h0040999

 

Article Description: Commentary on the struggle between therapist as scientist (or scientifically minded) and therapist as an empathic person.  Rogers bases his information from his own struggle to integrate the two concepts.

Additional Info

  • Author Rogers
  • Date 1955
  • Keywords Person Centered, Psychotherapy
  • Journal American Psychologist

Some Observations on the Organization of Personality

Rogers, C. R. (1947). Some observations on the organization of personality. American Psychologist, 2(9), 358-368. doi:10.1037/h0060883

 

Article Description: Based on the notion that processes are better understood when they are directly observed, Rogers presents his observational material on personality.

Additional Info

  • Author Rogers
  • Date 1947
  • Keywords Person Centered, Personality
  • Journal American Psychologist

The Process of Therapy

Rogers, C. R. (1992). The processes of therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60(2), 163-164. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.60.2.163 (reprinted from original article published in the 1940s)

Reprint of Rogers’ initial article in which he discuses the process of therapy that is at the core of humanistic/person-centered theory.

Additional Info

  • Author Rogers
  • Date 1992
  • Keywords Person Centered, Counselor Training
  • Journal Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology

Social Comparison in the Classroom: The Relationship Between Academic Achievement and Self-Concept

Rogers, C. M., Smith, M. D., & Coleman, J. M. (1978). Social comparison in the classroom: The relationship between academic achievement and self-concept. Journal of Educational Psychology, 70(1), 50-57. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.70.1.50

 

Article Description: One hypothesis derived from social comparison theory is that the relationship between academic achievement and self-concept can best be understood in terms of the child's achievement standing compared with that of classmates.   When relative within-classroom achievement standing was not considered, reading achievement was not significantly related to self-concept, although mathematics achievement was. When relative within-classroom achievement standing was considered, both reading and math achievement were found to be significantly related to self-concept

Additional Info

  • Author Rogers Smith Coleman
  • Date 1978
  • Keywords Social Comparison Theory, Achievement, Self Concept, Person Centered
  • Journal Journal of Educational Psychology

Humanistic Psychology at York University: Retrospective: Focus on Clients’ Experiencing in Psychotherapy: Emphasis of Radical Reflexivity.

Rennie, D. L. (2010) Humanistic Psychology at York University: Retrospective: Focus on Clients’ Experiencing in Psychotherapy: Emphasis of Radical Reflexivity. The Humanistic Psychologist. 38: 40-56.

 

Article Description: Radical Reflexivity, awareness of our self-awareness, is demonstrated using qualitative research on client experiencing of therapy.

Additional Info

  • Author Rennie
  • Date 2010
  • Keywords psychotherapy
  • Journal The Humanistic Psychologist

Client and Therapist Variability in Clients' Perceptions of their Therapists' Multicultural Competencies

Owen, J., Leach, M. M., Wampold, B., & Rodolfa, E. (2011). Client and therapist variability in clients' perceptions of their therapists' multicultural competencies. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58(1), 1-9. doi:10.1037/a0021496

 

Article Description: This study examined therapist differences in their clients’ ratings of their therapists’ multicultural competencies (MCCs) as well as tested whether therapists’ who were rated as exhibiting more MCCs also had clients who had better therapy outcomes.  Results demonstrated that therapists accounted for less than 1% of the variance in their clients’ Cross-Cultural Counseling Inventory–Revised (CCCI-R; T. D. LaFromboise, H. L. K. Coleman, & A. Hernandez, 1991) scores, suggesting that therapists did not differ in terms of how clients rated their MCCs. Therapists accounted for approximately 8.5% of the variance in therapy outcomes.

Additional Info

  • Author Owen Leach Wampold Rodolfa
  • Date 2011
  • Keywords Diversity, Multicultural Competencies, Counselor Training
  • Journal Journal of Counseling Psychology

Intentionality, The Heart of Human Will

May, R. (1965). Intentionality, The Heart of Human Will. The Journal of humanistic psychology, 5(2), 202-209.

 

Author discuses and defines “intentionality” as it occurs in the human experience and in psychotherapy (gives us the foundation for wishing and willing).

Additional Info

  • Author May
  • Date 1965
  • Keywords Existential, Intentionality
  • Journal The Journal of Humanistic Psychology

Creativity and Encounter

May, R. (1964). Creativity and encounter. American Journal of Psychoanalysis, 24(1), 39-45.

 

Article Description: Author proposes his own theory and commentary about the creative process

Additional Info

  • Author May
  • Date 1964
  • Keywords Creativity, Existential
  • Journal American Journal of Psychoanalysis

Gender in Lesbian Relationships: Cultural, feminist, and Constructivist Reflections

Laird, J. (2000). Gender in lesbian relationships: Cultural, feminist, and constructionist reflections. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 26(4), 455-67.

 

Article Description: Author reviews the literature on integrating lesbian culture into more traditional couples narratives and proposes a model for practice that merges feminist, constructivist, and narrative approaches.

Additional Info

  • Author Laird
  • Date 2000
  • Keywords Diversity, Feminism, LGBTQ
  • Journal Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
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