Owen, J., Leach, M. M., Wampold, B., & Rodolfa, E. (2011). Client and therapist variability in clients' perceptions of their therapists' multicultural competencies. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58(1), 1-9. doi:10.1037/a0021496
Article Description: This study examined therapist differences in their clients’ ratings of their therapists’ multicultural competencies (MCCs) as well as tested whether therapists’ who were rated as exhibiting more MCCs also had clients who had better therapy outcomes. Results demonstrated that therapists accounted for less than 1% of the variance in their clients’ Cross-Cultural Counseling Inventory–Revised (CCCI-R; T. D. LaFromboise, H. L. K. Coleman, & A. Hernandez, 1991) scores, suggesting that therapists did not differ in terms of how clients rated their MCCs. Therapists accounted for approximately 8.5% of the variance in therapy outcomes.
May, R. (1964). Creativity and encounter. American Journal of Psychoanalysis, 24(1), 39-45.
Article Description: Author proposes his own theory and commentary about the creative process
Rogers, C. R. (1956). Clientcentered theory. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 3(2), 115-120. doi:10.1037/h0046548
Article Description: Case study of an antisocial patient from a client-centered approach. In the application of client-centered therapy, Rogers discusses how his approach facilitates growth.
Blount, H. G. (1979). The existential psychotherapy of phobias. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice, 16(3), 282-285. doi:10.1037/h0085890
Article Description: Existential psychotherapy process of phobias. Article proposes a five stage treatment model and concludes with a case study.
Rogers, C. R. (1957). The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 21(2), 95-103. doi:10.1037/h0045357
Article Description: Seminal article in which Rogers describes his conditions of change that have become the tenets of person centered therapy/theory.
Hall, G. C. N. (2001). Psychotherapy research with ethnic minorities: Empirical, ethical, and conceptual issues. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69(3), 502-510. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.69.3.502
Article Description: There is an increasing demand for psychotherapy among ethnic minority populations. Yet, there is not adequate evidence that empirically supported therapies (ESTs) are effective with ethnic minorities. Ethical guidelines suggest that psychotherapies be modified to become culturally appropriate for ethnic minority persons. Conceptual approaches have identified interdependence, spirituality, and discrimination as considerations for culturally sensitive therapy (CST). However, there is no more empirical support for the efficacy of CSTs than there is for the efficacy of ESTs with ethnic minority populations. The chasm between EST and CST research is a function of differences between methods and researchers in these 2 traditions. Specific recommendations for research collaboration between CST and EST researchers are offered.
Carr, P. B., & Steele, C. M. (2010). Stereotype Threat Affects Financial Decision Making. Psychological Science, 21(10), 1411-1416.
Article Description: Authors review in this research report 3 studies that provide evidence that one’s decision-making can be influenced by concerns about stereotypes and the devaluation of one’s identity.
Fraga, E. D., Atkinson, D. R., & Wampold, B. E. (2004). Ethnic group preferences for multicultural counseling competencies. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 10(1), 53-65. doi:10.1037/1099-9809.10.1.53
Article Description: Undergraduate students were surveyed using a paired-comparison format to determine preferences for the 9 attitudes/beliefs, 11 knowledges, and 11 skills identified by D. W. Sue, P. Arredondo, and R. J. McDavis (1992) as characteristics of the competent multicultural counselor. Results indicated that preferences for 5 of the 9 attitudes/beliefs, 5 of the 11 knowledges, and 7 of the 11 skills competencies varied as a function of race/ethnicity.
Rennie, D. L. (2010) Humanistic Psychology at York University: Retrospective: Focus on Clients’ Experiencing in Psychotherapy: Emphasis of Radical Reflexivity. The Humanistic Psychologist. 38: 40-56.
Article Description: Radical Reflexivity, awareness of our self-awareness, is demonstrated using qualitative research on client experiencing of therapy.
Elliott, R., Bohart, A. C., Watson, J. C., & Greenberg, L. S. (2011). Empathy. Psychotherapy, 48(1), 43-49. doi:10.1037/a0022187
Article Description: Explores definition and measurement of empathy. Article also discusses empathy as it relates to psychotherapy outcome. Results suggest that empathy is a moderately strong predictor of psychotherapy outcome.
Stiles, W. B., Barkham, M., Twigg, E., Mellor-Clark, J., & Cooper, M. (2006). Effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural, person-centred and psychodynamic therapies as practised in UK national health service settings. Psychological Medicine, 36(4), 555-66.
Article Description: Compared CBT, PCT, and Psychodynamic treatment. All three treatment groups showed marked improvement. There was a large overlap in score distribution between treatment types. Outcome is consistent with previous literature comparing treatment approaches.
Watson, J. C., & Greenberg, L. S. (1996). Pathways to change in the psychotherapy of depression: Relating process to session change and outcome. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, and Training, 33(2), 262-274. doi:10.1037/0033-3184.108.40.2062
Article Description: This study identified a pathway from in session process, and problem resolution, to post session change and final outcome. Two brief treatments for depression, one using client-centered (CC) and the other process-experiential (PE) interventions were compared on client process and outcome. The PE group showed significantly higher levels of experiencing, vocal quality and expressive stance, and greater problem resolution than the CC group in two of three PE interventions that were studied. Clients' Degree of Problem Resolution (DRS) correlated significantly with depth of experiencing, and sustained resolution over treatment resulted in better outcome.
Fulmer, A. C., Gelfand, M. J., Kruglanski, A. W., Kim-Prieto, C., Diener, E., Pierro, A., & Higgins, E. T. (2010). On “Feeling Right” in Cultural Contexts: How Person-Culture Match Affects Self-Esteem and Subjective Well-Being. Psychological Science, 21(11), 1563-1569.
Article Description: This research report discusses 2 studies that explore how the interaction of individual- and cultural-level personality affects self-esteem and well-being.
Rogers, C. M., Smith, M. D., & Coleman, J. M. (1978). Social comparison in the classroom: The relationship between academic achievement and self-concept. Journal of Educational Psychology, 70(1), 50-57. doi:10.1037/0022-06220.127.116.11
Article Description: One hypothesis derived from social comparison theory is that the relationship between academic achievement and self-concept can best be understood in terms of the child's achievement standing compared with that of classmates. When relative within-classroom achievement standing was not considered, reading achievement was not significantly related to self-concept, although mathematics achievement was. When relative within-classroom achievement standing was considered, both reading and math achievement were found to be significantly related to self-concept
Shechtman, Z., & Pastor, R. (2005). Cognitive-behavioral and humanistic group treatment for children with learning disabilities: A comparison of outcomes and process. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52(3), 322-336. doi:10.1037/0022-018.104.22.1682
Article Description: The authors of this study examined the outcomes and processes of 2 types of group treatment— cognitive– behavioral treatment groups (CBTG) and humanistic group therapy. Results indicated that the addition of either type of group treatment to individual academic assistance was more effective than the latter alone on most measures. In fact, on the majority of measures, group treatment without academic assistance was more effective than just individual assistance. Finally, HGT was more effective than CBTG on most measures.
Wampold, B. E. (2007). Psychotherapy: The humanistic (and effective) treatment. American Psychologist, 62(8), 857-873. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.62.8.857
Article Description: Common factors research. Psychotherapy is compared with medicine and cultural healing practices to argue that critical aspects of psychotherapy involve human processes that are used in religious, spiritual, and cultural healing practices. A model of psychotherapy is presented that stipulates various aspects that involve uniquely human characteristics. Central to this model is patient acquisition of an adaptive explanation of his or her difficulties.
Kuhn, G., Kourkoulou, A., & Leekam, S.R. (2010) How Magic Changes our Expectations About Autism. Psychological Science, 21(10), 1487-1493.
The vanishing ball illusion is used with comparison groups of individuals with Autism with typically developing individuals. Authors explain how findings oppose their theory using data from eye tracking.
Rogers, C. R. (1947). Some observations on the organization of personality. American Psychologist, 2(9), 358-368. doi:10.1037/h0060883
Article Description: Based on the notion that processes are better understood when they are directly observed, Rogers presents his observational material on personality.
Rogers, C. R. (1963). The concept of the fully functioning person. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice, 1(1), 17-26. doi:10.1037/h0088567
Article Description: From a humanistic perspective, answers the questions of: If we were as successful as therapists as we could wish to be, what sort of persons would have developed in our therapy? What is the hypothetical end-point, the ultimate, of the therapeutic process?