Apfelbaum, E. P., Pauker, K., Sommers, S. R., & Amdady, N. (2010). In Blind Pursuit of Racial Equality?Psychological Science, 21(11), 1587-1592.
Researchers explain and expose the color-blind mindset to managing diversity to a sample of elementary-school students who were placed into 2 conditions (color-blind and value diversity).
Bartz, J. A., Zaki, J., Golger, N., Hollander, E., Ludwig, N. N., Kolevzon, A., & Ochsner, K.N. (2010) Oxytocin selectively Improves Empathy. Psychological Science, 21(10), 1426-1428.
Authors randomly assign 27 men in two groups, experimental and placebo, to assess the effects of intranasal Oxytocin on empathic accuracy.
Blount, H. G. (1979). The existential psychotherapy of phobias. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice, 16(3), 282-285. doi:10.1037/h0085890
Existential psychotherapy process of phobias. Article proposes a five stage treatment model and concludes with a case study.
Carr, P. B., & Steele, C. M. (2010). Stereotype Threat Affects Financial Decision Making. Psychological Science, 21(10), 1411-1416.
Authors review in this research report 3 studies that provide evidence that one’s decision-making can be influenced by concerns about stereotypes and the devaluation of one’s identity.
Coleman, H., Casali, S., & Wampold, B. (2001). Adolescent strategies for coping with cultural diversity. Journal of Counseling and Development : JCD, 79(3), 356-364. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/219042308?accountid=14749
Investigates how adolescents react/cope when faced with situations in which they are in contact with another cultural subgroup. Uses the Coping with Cultural Diversity Scale (CCDS) to assess participants on six strategies they might use when navigating immigration, etc. including acculturation. Results suggest that the process of affiliating with one culture is qualitatively different than navigating more than one culture. Context-specific use of strategies is also explored.
Davis, J. (2009) Complementary Research Methods in Humanistic and Transpersonal Psychology: A Case for Methodological Pluralism. The Humanistic Psychologist, 37: 4-23.
This article reviews the underpinnings of Humanistic and Transpersonal Theories in psychological research methods, natural science and human science.
Elliott, R., Bohart, A. C., Watson, J. C., & Greenberg, L. S. (2011). Empathy. Psychotherapy, 48(1), 43-49. doi:10.1037/a0022187
Explores definition and measurement of empathy. Article also discusses empathy as it relates to psychotherapy outcome. Results suggest that empathy is a moderately strong predictor of psychotherapy outcome.
Erdwins, C., Buffardi, L., Casper, W., & O’Brien, A. (2001). The relationship of women’s role strain to social support, role satisfaction, and self-efficacy. Family Relations, 50(3), 230-238. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/213933825?accountid=14749
129 married, employed women with at least one preschool-aged child reported on self efficacy, social support, role satisfaction, and role strain. Self-efficacy and parental roles were predictors of women’s work-family conflict and role overload, respectively. Spousal and supervisor support accounted for significant variation in work-life conflict as well.
Fraga, E. D., Atkinson, D. R., & Wampold, B. E. (2004). Ethnic group preferences for multicultural counseling competencies. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 10(1), 53-65. doi:10.1037/1099-9809.10.1.53
undergraduate students were surveyed using a paired-comparison format to determine preferences for the 9 attitudes/beliefs, 11 knowledges, and 11 skills identified by D. W. Sue, P. Arredondo, and R. J. McDavis (1992) as characteristics of the competent multicultural counselor. Results indicated that preferences for 5 of the 9 attitudes/beliefs, 5 of the 11 knowledges, and 7 of the 11 skills competencies varied as a function of race/ethnicity.
Friedman, H. (2006). The Renewal of Psychedelic Research: Implications for Humanistic and Transpersonal Psychology. The Humanistic Psychologist. 34(1): 39–58
The author provides a history of psychedelics in research with implications for facilitating humanistic and transpersonal growth.
Friedman, H. (2008) Humanistic and Positive Psychology: The Methodological and Epistemological Divide.Humanistic Psychologist, 36: 113-126.
Author reviews methodological and epistemological similarities and differences between humanistic and positive psychology.
Fulmer, A. C., Gelfand, M. J., Kruglanski, A. W., Kim-Prieto, C., Diener, E., Pierro, A., & Higgins, E. T. (2010). On “Feeling Right” in Cultural Contexts: How Person-Culture Match Affects Self-Esteem and Subjective Well-Being. Psychological Science, 21(11), 1563-1569.
This research report discusses 2 studies that explore how the interaction of individual- and cultural-level personality affects self-esteem and well-being.
Hackett, G., Enns, C. Z., & Zetzer, H. A. (1992). Reactions of women to nonsexist and feminist counseling: Effects of counselor orientation and mode of information delivery. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 39(3), 321-330. doi:10.1037/0022-0184.108.40.2061
Conflicting findings in the research on women’s reactions to feminist counseling and therapy were investigated. Feminist and nonfeminist college women were exposed to nonsexist/ humanistic, liberal feminist, or radical feminist counseling. Participants’ perceptions of the liberal feminist counselor were significantly more positive than perceptions of either the nonsexist or the radical feminist counselor
Hall, G. C. N. (2001). Psychotherapy research with ethnic minorities: Empirical, ethical, and conceptual issues.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69(3), 502-510. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.69.3.502
There is an increasing demand for psychotherapy among ethnic minority populations. Yet, there is not adequate evidence that empirically supported therapies (ESTs) are effective with ethnic minorities. Ethical guidelines suggest that psychotherapies be modified to become culturally appropriate for ethnic minority persons. Conceptual approaches have identified interdependence, spirituality, and discrimination as considerations for culturally sensitive therapy (CST). However, there is no more empirical support for the efficacy of CSTs than there is for the efficacy of ESTs with ethnic minority populations. The chasm between EST and CST research is a function of differences between methods and researchers in these 2 traditions. Specific recommendations for research collaboration between CST and EST researchers are offered.
Huselid, R. F., & Cooper, M. L. (1994). Gender roles as mediators of sex differences in expressions of pathology. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103(4), 595-603. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.103.4.595
This study tested the extent to which gender role attributes and gender role ideology account for sex differences in internally directed psychological distress and in externally directed deviant behavior in a random sample of 2,013 adolescents. Results indicate that gender roles substantially mediate sex differences in both types of pathology: Masculine instrumental attributes reduce internalized distress, whereas feminine expressive attributes reduce externalized behavior problems.
Kraus, M. W., Cote, S., & Keltner, D. (2010). Social Class, Contextualism, and Empathic Accuracy.Psychological Science, 21(11), 1716-1723.
In 3 studies, authors discuss and test their hypothesis based on recent research suggesting that individuals of a lower social class favor explanations of personal and political outcomes that are oriented to features of the external environment.
Kuhn, G., Kourkoulou, A., & Leekam, S.R. (2010) How Magic Changes our Expectations About Autism. Psychological Science, 21(10), 1487-1493.
The vanishing ball illusion is used with comparison groups of individuals with Autism with typically developing individuals. Authors explain how findings oppose their theory using data from eye tracking.
Laird, J. (2000). Gender in lesbian relationships: Cultural, feminist, and constructionist reflections. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 26(4), 455-67. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/220980346?accountid=14749
Author reviews the literature on integrating lesbian culture into more traditional couples narratives and proposes a model for practice that merges feminist, constructivist, and narrative approaches.
May, R. (1964). Creativity and encounter. American Journal of Psychoanalysis, 24(1), 39-45.
Author proposes his own theory and commentary about the creative process
May, R. (1965). Intentionality, The Heart of Human Will. The Journal of humanistic psychology, 5(2), 202-209.
Author discuses and defines “intentionality” as it occurs in the human experience and in psychotherapy (gives us the foundation for wishing and willing).
Owen, J., Leach, M. M., Wampold, B., & Rodolfa, E. (2011). Client and therapist variability in clients’ perceptions of their therapists’ multicultural competencies. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58(1), 1-9. doi:10.1037/a0021496
This study examined therapist differences in their clients’ ratings of their therapists’ multicultural competencies (MCCs) as well as tested whether therapists’ who were rated as exhibiting more MCCs also had clients who had better therapy outcomes. Results demonstrated that therapists accounted for less than 1% of the variance in their clients’ Cross-Cultural Counseling Inventory–Revised (CCCI-R; T. D. LaFromboise, H. L. K. Coleman, & A. Hernandez, 1991) scores, suggesting that therapists did not differ in terms of how clients rated their MCCs. Therapists accounted for approximately 8.5% of the variance in therapy outcomes.
Rennie, D. L. (2010) Humanistic Psychology at York University: Retrospective: Focus on Clients’ Experiencing in Psychotherapy: Emphasis of Radical Reflexivity. The Humanistic Psychologist. 38: 40-56.
Radical Reflexivity, awareness of our self-awareness, is demonstrated using qualitative research on client experiencing of therapy.
Rogers, C. M., Smith, M. D., & Coleman, J. M. (1978). Social comparison in the classroom: The relationship between academic achievement and self-concept. Journal of Educational Psychology, 70(1), 50-57. doi:10.1037/0022-06220.127.116.11
One hypothesis derived from social comparison theory is that the relationship between academic achievement and self-concept can best be understood in terms of the child’s achievement standing compared with that of classmates. When relative within-classroom achievement standing was not considered, reading achievement was not significantly related to self-concept, although mathematics achievement was. When relative within-classroom achievement standing was considered, both reading and math achievement were found to be significantly related to self-concept
Rogers, C. R. (1992). The processes of therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60(2), 163-164. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.60.2.163 (reprinted from original article published in the 1940s)
Reprint of Rogers’ initial article in which he discuses the process of therapy that is at the coe of humanistic/person-centered theory.
Rogers, C. R. (1947). Some observations on the organization of personality. American Psychologist, 2(9), 358-368. doi:10.1037/h0060883
Based on the notion that processes are better understood when they are directly observed, Rogers presents his observational material on personality.
Rogers, C. R. (1955). Persons or science? A philosophical question. American Psychologist, 10(7), 267-278. doi:10.1037/h0040999
Commentary on the struggle between therapist as scientist (or scientifically minded) and therapist as an empathic person. Rogers bases his information from his own struggle to integrate the two concepts.
Rogers, C. R. (1956). Clientcentered theory. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 3(2), 115-120. doi:10.1037/h0046548
Case study of an antisocial patient from a client-centered approach. In the application of client-centered therapy, Rogers discusses how his approach facilitates growth.
Rogers, C. R. (1957). The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 21(2), 95-103. doi:10.1037/h0045357
Seminal article in which Rogers describes his conditions of change that have become the tenets of person centered therapy/theory.
Rogers, C. R. (1963). The concept of the fully functioning person. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice, 1(1), 17-26. doi:10.1037/h0088567
From a humanistic perspective, answers the questions of: If we were as successful as therapists as we could wish to be, what sort of persons would have developed in our therapy? What is the hypothetical end-point, the ultimate, of the therapeutic process?
Schug, J., Yuki, M., & Maddux, W. (2010) Relational mobility Explains Between- and Within-culture Differences in Self-Disclosure to Close Friends. Psychological Science, 21(10), 1471-1478.
Authors explore predictors and mediators in social relationships that promote self-disclosure in Japan
Shechtman, Z., & Pastor, R. (2005). Cognitive-behavioral and humanistic group treatment for children with learning disabilities: A comparison of outcomes and process. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52(3), 322-336. doi:10.1037/0022-018.104.22.1682
The authors of this study examined the outcomes and processes of 2 types of group treatment— cognitive– behavioral treatment groups (CBTG) and humanistic group therapy. Results indicated that the addition of either type of group treatment to individual academic assistance was more effective than the latter alone on most measures. In fact, on the majority of measures, group treatment without academic assistance was more effective than just individual assistance. Finally, HGT was more effective than CBTG on most measures.
Stewart, T. L., Latu, I. M., Branscombe, N. R., Denney, H. T. (2010) Yes We Can! Prejudice Reduction Through Seeing (Inequality) and Believing (in Social Change). Psychological Science, 21(11), 1557-1562.
Authors investigate by experimentally varying feedback while investigating perception of efficacy to reduce racial inequality (in the context of increased awareness of illegitimate in-group advantages) on White Americans’ intergroup attitudes and antidiscrimination behavior.
STILES, W. B., BARKHAM, M., TWIGG, E., MELLOR-CLARK, J., & COOPER, M. (2006). Effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural, person-centred and psychodynamic therapies as practised in UK national health service settings. Psychological Medicine, 36(4), 555-66. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/204488633?accountid=14749
Compared CBT, PCT, and Psychodynamic treatment. All three treatment groups showed marked improvement. There was a large overlap in score distribution between treatment types. Outcome is consistent with previous literature comparing treatment approaches.
Van de Ven, N., Zeelenberg, M., & Pieters, R. (2010). Warding Off the Evil Eye: When the Fear of Being Envied Increases Prosocial Behavior. Psychological Science, 21(11), 1671-1677.
In 3 experiments, with samples consisting of Dutch participants who were placed in either experimental or control groups, authors explore the idea that the “better off” act more prosocially as an appeasement strategy.
Wampold, B. E. (2002). An examination of the bases of evidence-based interventions. School Psychology Quarterly, 17(4), 500-507. doi:10.1521/scpq.17.4.500.20870
School psychology has proposed a system to aid in the identification of evidence-based interventions. In this commentary, issues related to the politics of exclusion, design and theory, methods, and multicultarism are discussed.
Wampold, B. E. (2007). Psychotherapy: The humanistic (and effective) treatment. American Psychologist, 62(8), 857-873. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.62.8.857
Common factors research. Psychotherapy is compared with medicine and cultural healing practices to argue that critical aspects of psychotherapy involve human processes that are used in religious, spiritual, and cultural healing practices. A model of psychotherapy is presented that stipulates various aspects that involve uniquely human characteristics. Central to this model is patient acquisition of an adaptive explanation of his or her difficulties.
Watson, J. C., & Greenberg, L. S. (1996). Pathways to change in the psychotherapy of depression: Relating process to session change and outcome. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 33(2), 262-274. doi:10.1037/0033-322.214.171.1242
This study identified a pathway from in session process, and problem resolution, to post session change and final outcome. Two brief treatments for depression, one using client-centered (CC) and the other process-experiential (PE) interventions were compared on client process and outcome. The PE group showed significantly higher levels of experiencing, vocal quality and expressive stance, and greater problem resolution than the CC group in two of three PE interventions that were studied. Clients’ Degree of Problem Resolution (DRS) correlated significantly with depth of experiencing, and sustained resolution over treatment resulted in better outcome.
ONLINE RESOURCES IN HUMANISTIC/EXISTENTIAL PSYCHOLOGY
1. Schneider, K.J. (2006). Existential Psychotherapy. American Psychological Association Video Series: Systems of Psychotherapy I. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. (Available at www.apa.org/videos).
2. May, R. (2007). (Speaker). Rollo May on existential psychotherapy. [DVD.] Psychotherapy.net (Available online at http://www.psychotherapy.net), San Francisco, CA. Interviewed by Kirk Schneider, John Galvin, and Ilene Serlin.
3. Schneider, K.J. (2008, December). The Mystery of Being. TV Ontario Big Ideas Series. [Available at youtube.com]
4. Schneider, K.J. (2009). Existential-Humanistic Therapy. . American Psychological Association Video Series: Psychotherapy Over Time [6 session format]. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. (Available at www.apa.org/videos).
5. http://www.avanta.net/: TheVirginia Satir Global Network (Training, Resources, etc)